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Curtin, ‘Medical knowledge and you can metropolitan believe during the tropical Africa’, AHR, 90, step 3 (Summer 1985), 594-613; Raymond F

Grillot, ‘Dans le Haut-Congo Fran9ais \ MC (19step one4), step 140-step 1

96 AOM, AP648, Decree to your creation of a good Commune at Brazzaville, 5 Oct 1911; address from Governor-General Merlin, BCAF, ten (1910), 331; AOM, 4(2)D7, Yearly report out-of Moyen-Congo, Brazzaville, 1911. 97 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, thirty-six. 98 Mandat-Grancey, Bien au Congo, 182. 99 Veistroffer, Vingt arts, 103; Baratier, Bien au Congo, 121. 100 Colonel Moll, Une dme de colonial: lettres du Lieutenant-Colonel Moll (Paris, Emile-Paul, 1912), 10; Deschamps, De Bordeaux bien au Tchad, 22-5; Frey, ‘Brazzaville’, 44-6; Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, step 32-step three, step three 8 ^ 0 . 101 To own urban buildings when you look at the colonial Africa, discover, Philip D. Betts, Unsure dimensions: western to another country empires regarding the twentieth century (Minneapolis: College or university from Minnesota Drive, 1985), 114-46; Odile Goerg, ‘Reflexion en ce qui concerne l’architecture europeenne ce long de los angeles cote africaine a good partir de- l’exemple de la Guinee’, for the Almeida-Topor and you may Riesz (eds.), Rencontres franco-allemandes en ce qui concerne VAfrique, 81-92; and you can Gwendolyn Wright, ‘Tradition in the services from modernity: buildings and urbanism in French colonial coverage, 1900-1930’, Diary of modern Background, 59 (Summer 1987), 291-316. 102 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 34. 103 Into the records and requirement for the latest Fourteenth away from July for the Brazzaville, discover Phyllis M. Martin, ‘National getaways turned: the fourteenth out-of July inside Brazzaville’, paper exhibited during the thirty-7th yearly conference of your own African Education Organization, Toronto, ps, ‘Rapport sur la region de- Brazzaville’. 105 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 36. 106 Address off Governor-Standard Merlin, BCAF, 10 (1910), 337. 107 Gabrielle and Joseph Vassal, Franfais, Beige et Portugais dentro de Afrique Equatoriale (Paris: Pierre Roger, 1926), 42. 108 Headrick, ‘The impression out-of colonialism for the health’, 221. 109 Curtin, ‘Medical degree and urban planning’, 594-seven. 110 Ibid., 598-609; along with Headrick, ‘The impression off colonialism to your health’, 1cuatro3-4, 801-dos. 111 Bonchamps, ‘Rapport sur la area de Brazzaville’. 112 Frey, ‘Brazzaville’, 44; Sautter, De- VAtlantique aufleuve Congo, vol. We, 398. 113 Challaye, Ce Congo Franfais, 219. 114 JO, ps, ‘Rapport en ce qui concerne los angeles part de- Brazzaville’; and AOM, 4(2)D1, Brazzaville Manager so you’re able to Commissioner-Standard inside Libreville, 13 July 1901. 116 Quoted inside Headrick, ‘The feeling of colonialism toward health’, 383. 117 JO, 20 Will get 1905. 118 AGPSE, 510BVI, Yearly profile ‘Oeuvres de- los angeles Sainte-Enfance’, twenty four Oct 1901,1 January 1903,ten November 1912. 119 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 42. Chikouangue are a mention of manioc dough. 120 AOM, TP152, first collection, Purpose Fillon, Declaration away from Meters. Henri with the Brazzaville staff, 1913. 121 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-nine.

Fehderau, The origin and you may growth of Kituba (Lingua Franca Kikongo) (Kisangani: Universite Libre du Congo, 1966) shows that Kituba is a words associated with the slave trade; William J

122 AGPSE, B706, Brazzaville Purpose Diary, 31 Get 1908; Roentgen. P. C. 123 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-nine. 124 Look for, like, J.-P. Chretien and you will Grams. Prunier (eds.), Les ethnies ont une histoire (Paris: Karthala, 1989); Leroy Vail (ed.), The production of tribalism within the southern area Africa (London: James Currey, 1989; Chris Grey, Adaptation and social name: the production of federal space into the rural France and you may colonial area in the outlying Gabon (Bloomington: Indiana College Target Around the globe Transform and Community Tranquility, 1994); Terence Ranger, The brand new invention regarding lifestyle inside colonial Africa’, into the Hobsbawm and you can Ranger (eds.), Brand new creativity away from lifestyle, 211-62, that he has actually revised while the innovation regarding heritage revisited: the actual situation of colonial Africa’, within the Terence Ranger and you can Olufemi Vaughan (eds.), Legitimacy plus the condition when you look at the twentieth millennium Africa (London: Macmillan, 1993), 62-111. Regarding modify of their essay, Ranger could have been swayed, and others, because of the Benedict Anderson, Dreamed organizations: reflections into the sources and give away from nationalism (London: Verso, 1983). 125 Harold W. Samarin, The fresh roots off Kituba and Lingala’, Record from African Dialects and you will Linguistics, twelve, step 1 (Sep 1991), 47-77, implies that the diffusion is alot more pertaining to foreign railway specialists in the all the way down Congo. 126 ASMF, Elizabeth l l . Brev fran Kongo, Lindgren so you’re able to SMF, 18 October 1911; B and you can E. no. step 1, Korr., Lindgren so you can SMF, eleven November 1911; F. zero. step 1, Dagbok, twenty-two March 1914; Brev fran Kongo, G. A. Hult to SMF, 11 January 1918. 127 Message away from Governor-General Merlin, BCAF, ten (1910), 337. 128 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-9; AOM, 4(2)D13, Report about Pond section, Brazzaville, Will get 1913. 129 Mumbansa mwa Bawele, ‘Y a great-t-il de l’ensemble des Bangalas?’ Zaire-Afrique, 78 (arin, ‘The root out of Kituba and you will Lingala’, 47, 57-69, and you will ‘Bondjo ethnicity and you free asexual dating apps Germany may colonial imagination’, Canadian Diary out-of African Training, 18 (1984), 345-65. 130 ‘Brazzaville’, BPSE, 25 (1909-10), 511; AGPSE, B706, Brazzaville Goal Log, 31 Could possibly get 1908,twenty five September 1910,step one December 1913. 131 Get a hold of sections step 3 and you can cuatro. 132 Grillot, ‘Dans le Haut-Congo Francais’, 139; ‘Brazzaville’, BCPSE, 27 (1913-14), 55; P. Augouard, Quarante-quatre annees bien au Congo (Evreux: Poussin, 1934), 50, 72-3,105. 133 Girard,’Brazzaville’, 31, 29. 134 AOM, 4(2)D5, Management report, Moyen-Congo, September-November 1910. 135 Frederick Cooper, ‘Urban room, industrial day, and you can salary labor inside the Africa’, inside the Challenge on the city, 23. dos 1

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